Potassium-argon dating

Chronological Methods 9 – Potassium-Argon Dating Potassium-Argon Dating Potassium-Argon dating is the only viable technique for dating very old archaeological materials. Geologists have used this method to date rocks as much as 4 billion years old. It is based on the fact that some of the radioactive isotope of Potassium, Potassium K ,decays to the gas Argon as Argon Ar By comparing the proportion of K to Ar in a sample of volcanic rock, and knowing the decay rate of K , the date that the rock formed can be determined. How Does the Reaction Work? Potassium K is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth’s crust 2. One out of every 10, Potassium atoms is radioactive Potassium K These each have 19 protons and 21 neutrons in their nucleus. If one of these protons is hit by a beta particle, it can be converted into a neutron. With 18 protons and 22 neutrons, the atom has become Argon Ar , an inert gas.

Which Language to Learn? The 7 Most Useful Languages

They conducted business for their respective colonial governments and forth across the Atlantic ocean. These agents were settled and paid a fixed salary by the colonial government, and give the long delays in communication, they played a great role in negotiation, with royal official and explaining; colonial needs and resources. European power refer to the one of the nations having great political social and economic influence in international affairs.

A nation that has exceptional and economic strength and consequently plays a major often evasive role in internation affairs. The great power characterically posses military and economic, strength as well as diplomatic and soft power influence. Colonization it occurs whenever any one or species populate on area.

Radiocarbon (C14) dating is the most widely used method to date objects made of organic matter. Potassium-argon dating can be used to date extremely old – up to , years old. Obsidian hydration dating is used on artifacts made from volcanic glass.

View images by clicking on link or reduced image: Each image opens into a new window. These primitive, medium sized apes lived in rain forests between 18 and 22 million years ago. This species and others such as Dryopithecus existed before the hominid line diverged on the path to humans. This lineage ancestral gibbons is believed to have diverged from the great ape and human lineages between 17 and 25 Mya Avers, Oreopithecus ‘s hand closely matches the pattern of early hominids, with a grasping capability including firm pad-to-pad precision gripping that apes are unable to perform presumably as a response to similar functional demands to hominids Moya-Sola et al, Bipedal activities made up a significant part of the positional behavior of this primate Kohler and Moya-Sola, Gorilla and human DNA only differs by 2.

Our DNA differs by only 1. The two species of Pan, the chimpanzee, P. The human ancestral line must have arisen between 5 and 8 million years ago.

Dating methods

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Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.

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South Africa

View as list View as slider Reduce Image 1 of Enlarge Reduce Image 2 of The lightest uses of capital punishment were the United Arab Emirates, which only put one person to death in , and the Palestinian Territories, which was confirmed to have killed two. Enlarge Reduce Image 3 of Those 11 men were all hanged on the same day December 21, in a prison 60 miles south of Amman.

According to the textbooks, all humans living today descended from a population that lived in east Africa around , years ago.

Organizers Questioned, Activists Put at Risk Summary Religious figures, the government, your parents—they all want to have a say in what you do between your legs. I will defend those rights. Despite state-sponsored repression and social stigma, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender LGBT people in the Middle East and North Africa are finding ways to speak out. They are telling their stories, building alliances, networking across borders, developing national and regional movements, and finding creative ways to combat homophobia and transphobia.

The report thus focuses on those parts of the region where Arabic is predominantly spoken. Activists in the countries that are the focus of this report must contend with state hostility, to varying degrees. Faced with official intransigence, some activists choose to work outside state structures: Others have taken on their governments, successfully pushing for incremental change in various forms. For example, in Lebanon and Tunisia state institutions have accepted calls to end forced anal examinations, after pressure from local and international activists as well as treaty bodies.

Iraq has committed to address violence based on sexual orientation and gender identity SOGI-based violence. Progress can be painstakingly slow and marred by setbacks. As we were drafting this report, in September , Egyptian security forces went into overdrive, arresting dozens following the display of a rainbow flag—a sign of solidarity with LGBT people—at a concert.


The International History Project Date: Archaeology studies past human behavior through the examination of material remains of previous human societies. These remains include the fossils preserved bones of humans, food remains, the ruins of buildings, and human artifacts—items such as tools, pottery, and jewelry. From their studies, archaeologists attempt to reconstruct past ways of life.

Archaeology is an important field of anthropology, which is the broad study of human culture and biology. Archaeologists concentrate their studies on past societies and changes in those societies over extremely long periods of time.

The most common relative dating method is stratigraphy. Other methods include fluorine dating, nitrogen dating, association with bones of extinct fauna, association with certain pollen profiles, association with geological features such as beaches, terraces and river meanders, and the establishment of .

Ancient Greeks and Romans were also familiar with cannabis, while in the Middle East, use spread throughout the Islamic empire to North Africa. In cannabis spread to the western hemisphere where Spaniards imported it to Chile for its use as fiber. In North America cannabis, in the form of hemp, was grown on many plantations for use in rope, clothing and paper.

The Use of Cannabis Cannabis sativa grows wild throughout many tropical and humid parts of the world. Its seeds have been used for animal feed, its fiber for hemp rope, and its oil as a vehicle for paint. The Cannabis Plant Cannabis is dioecious, meaning it comes as separate male and female plants. Male plants are taller and thinner and have flower like pods which contain the fertilizing, pollen-generating anthers. The female plant is darker and shorter and has short hairs protruding at the end of the bracteole pods.

Marijuana Paraphernalia Most users smoke marijuana in hand-rolled cigarettes called joints. Other popular methods of smoking marijuana include using bowls, pipes, and bongs.

The Principate (27 BC – 235 AD)

A Map of Africa showing location assignments of specimens from ref. B Map of Africa showing the locations of samples of elephant hair used for calibration of F14C for elephant tissues. Atmospheric 14C as 14CO2 enters the terrestrial biosphere by photosynthesis; 14C is subsequently incorporated into herbivore tissues as the animals ingest plants for food.

Both Vogel et al. This age mismatch likely results from several processes: Each of these is discussed below.

Importantly, when used in East Africa, UQ is typically much more concerned with conservatively quanti fying overall downside risk (with respect to some quantity of interest) than characterizing overall model uncertainty around point predictions.

Reinforcement Learning — No interviewee reported using any reinforcement learning methods. However, interest was expressed in it, particularly regard ing machine teaching and using RL in simulations, e. Machine Teaching — There is a shortage of good educational resources and teachers in East Africa. Several initiatives exist that use mobile phones as an education platform. Practitioners were interested in using ideas from machine teaching in their work to personalize content delivered.

However, the author did not encounter anyone who had employed any results from the machine teaching literature at this point. Uncertainty Quantification — An important factor that keeps the wealth of rich regions from moving into poorer regions like East Africa, despite the fact that it should earn greater returns there, is risk [1].

Great achievements in science and technology in ancient Africa

Great achievements in science and technology in ancient Africa By Sydella Blatch Despite suffering through the horrific system of slavery, sharecropping and the Jim Crow era, early African-Americans made countless contributions to science and technology 1. This lineage and culture of achievement, though, emerged at least 40, years ago in Africa. Unfortunately, few of us are aware of these accomplishments, as the history of Africa, beyond ancient Egypt, is seldom publicized.

Sadly, the vast majority of discussions on the origins of science include only the Greeks, Romans and other whites. But in fact most of their discoveries came thousands of years after African developments. While the remarkable black civilization in Egypt remains alluring, there was sophistication and impressive inventions throughout ancient sub-Saharan Africa as well.

are less accurate but are useful for es- tablishing correlation between sites of in East Africa and the Italian Peninsula. These methods, therefore, methods of U-S dating, the Th/U method is most widely applicable be- cause it requires relatively low ura- nium concentrations (generally.

Humans and our apelike ancestors have lived in Wonderwerk Cave for 2 million years — most recently in the early s, when a farm couple and their 14 children called it home. Wonderwerk holds another distinction as well: The cave contains the earliest solid evidence that our ancient human forebears probably Homo erectus were using fire.

Like many archaeological discoveries, this one was accidental. In the process, the team unearthed what appeared to be the remains of campfires from a million years ago — , years older than any other firm evidence of human-controlled fire. At Wonderwerk, Boston University archaeologist Paul Goldberg — a specialist in soil micromorphology, or the small-scale study of sediments — dug chunks of compacted dirt from the old excavation area. He then dried them out and soaked them in a polyester resin so they would harden to a rocklike consistency.

Once the blocks solidified, researchers sawed them into wafer-thin slices. Looking more closely, they identified burned bits of animal bones as well. The burning clearly had occurred inside the cave. Often used in crime labs to identify traces of drugs and fibers, FTIR can also determine the temperature to which organic matter has been heated — and Berna is among the first to adapt it for archaeology. That was just right for a small fire made of twigs and grasses. The Cooking Hypothesis At the site, researchers have found evidence of human-controlled fires in million-year-old layers of earth.

Radio Potassium Dating – Radiopotassium Dating commonly…

Messenger According to the textbooks, all humans living today descended from a population that lived in east Africa around , years ago. This is based on reliable evidence, including genetic analyses of people from around the globe and fossil finds from Ethiopia of human-like skeletal remains from , — , years ago. Now a large scientific team that I was part of has discovered new fossil bones and stone tools that challenge this view.

The new studies, published in Nature , push back the origins of our species by , years and suggest that early humans likely spanned across most of the African continent at the time.

From videos to music to apps, digital was at the forefront of consumers’ (and marketers’) minds this year. As comes to a close, Nielsen looked at some of the top trends in digital, including the top U.S. smartphone apps and operating systems.

Adaptive advantages of bipedalism include the following except? Adaptive advantages of bipedalism include the following except A. Anatomical changes in hominins indicative of habitual bipedal locomotion include A. What have researchers concluded from the fossil remains of hominin feet from South Africa? Remains from hominin feet have not been found in South Africa B. They indicate obligate quadrupedalism. They indicate many forms of hominins spent considerable time in trees.

They were adapted for quadrupedalism. They indicate the big toe could NOT have aided the foot in grasping. Before hominins made stone tools, they probably A. The current evidence indicates that hominins possessed all the major structural changes necessary for bipedalism by A. It is defined as the study of early humans.

Tools and tactics for the LGBTI community in the Middle-East and North Africa

Imagine a year in Africa that summer never arrives. The sky takes on a gray hue during the day and glows red at night. Flowers do not bloom. Trees die in the winter.

Slavery and the slave trade helped shape the persisting inequities that have historically existed in the economic and social conditions of peoples of African descent all over the world, a theme provocatively captured in the title of Walter Rodney ’ s How Europe Underdeveloped Africa ().

The precise starting date is a subject for debate. C and was granted the honorific cognomen “Augustus”. Augustus was keen to maintain the illusion that he was a conservative restorer of public order who was ending the polarization, factionalism and violence of the Late Republican era, and as such he and his successors maintained the pretense of The Republic , with many institutions such as the Senate, Consul and other offices transferring from the Republic to the Imperial period but with much of its power reduced and its appointments carefully controlled.

One-Man-Rule became the name of the game and attempts by his successors, such as Tiberius, to devolve to the Senate, only confirmed it since it led to further chaos and bad governance that only an actual tyrant could solve. Its territorial extent covered dozens of contemporary nations and the entire Mediterranean which the Romans called “Mare Nostrum” Our Sea. Within Europe, it failed to penetrate north into the German speaking lands as well as Scandinavia, the Baltic coasts and Russia.

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